Using a HashSet in a thread-safe manner

      4 Comments on Using a HashSet in a thread-safe manner

Thread safety is a very hot topic for Java programmers right now. But I’ve seen quite a few folks using the rather complex collections from java.util.concurrent when they actually needed just a thread-safe implementation of a Set.

Of course, the HashSet implementation is non-thread-safe:

Note that this implementation is not synchronized. If multiple threads access a hash set concurrently, and at least one of the threads modifies the set, it must be synchronized externally. This is typically accomplished by synchronizing on some object that naturally encapsulates the set. If no such object exists, the set should be “wrapped” using the Collections.synchronizedSet method. This is best done at creation time, to prevent accidental unsynchronized access to the set:

So getting a thread-safe representation of the HashSet class is pretty easy:

   Set s = Collections.synchronizedSet(new HashSet(...));

This returns a synchronized set backed by the specified set. But be careful: In order to guarantee serial access, it is critical that all access to the backing set is accomplished through the returned set.

A further pitfall is the use of the class’s iterator

Note that the fail-fast behavior of an iterator cannot be guaranteed as it is, generally speaking, impossible to make any hard guarantees in the presence of unsynchronized concurrent modification. Fail-fast iterators throw ConcurrentModificationException on a best-effort basis. Therefore, it would be wrong to write a program that depended on this exception for its correctness: the fail-fast behavior of iterators should be used only to detect bugs.

So it is imperative that you manually synchronize on the returned set when iterating over it:

  Set s = Collections.synchronizedSet(new HashSet());
  synchronized(s) {
      Iterator i = s.iterator(); // Must be in the synchronized block
      while (i.hasNext())

Failure to follow this advice may result in non-deterministic behavior.

4 thoughts on “Using a HashSet in a thread-safe manner

  1. avatarMattwm

    So, if I am running a J2EE application that uses HashSet, do I still need to worry about synchronization? i’ve read that J2EE and anything that runs in an ApplicationServer, is automatically thread safe as they can not implement or manage threads outside the container.

  2. avatarAnonymous


    Yes, if you use threads in your container. Your code in theory can not even see stuff in other containers so you do not need worry about that.

  3. Pingback: Why there is no ConcurrentHashSet against ConcurrentHashMap

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